Month: January 2018

MUNICIPAL DEBT INVALID, THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT HAS RULED

On 23 May 2017, the Constitutional Court heard an application for confirmation of an order of the High Court of South Africa, that declared section 118(3) of the Local Government: Municipal Systems Act, 2000, constitutionally invalid.

On 29 August, in a ruling majority written by Justice Edwin Cameron, the court found that upon transfer of a property, a new owner is not liable for old municipal debt.

Section 118 of the Municipal Systems Act

Section 118(3) explains that municipal debt on any property is a charge upon that property and enjoys preference over any mortgage bond registered against the property. However, the question was whether this means that, when a new owner buys the property, the property remains with the debts of a previous owner.

What did the court say?

The court ruled that section 118 (3) is “well capable of being interpreted”, so that the historical debt is not transferred to a new owner of the property.

“What is notable about section 118(3) is that the legislature did not require that the charge (historical debt) be either registered or noted on the register of deeds. Textually, there is no indication that the right given to municipalities has a third-party effect (to a new owner)… It (historical debt) stands alone, isolated and unsupported, without foundation or undergirding and with no express words carrying any suggestion that it is transmissible,” the court said in the judgement.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice. Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

References:

The Constitutional Court of South Africa

“Concourt rules new homeowners not liable for debts of previous owners”, Ray Mahlaka, The Citizen, 29 August 2017. https://citizen.co.za/news/south-africa/1631149/concourt-rules-new-homeowners-not-liable-for-debts-of-previous-owners/

Jordaan and Another v City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality and Others; New Ventures Consulting & Services (Pty) Ltd and Others v City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality and Another; Livanos and Others v Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality and Another; Oak Plant Rentals (Pty) Ltd and Others v Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality (74195/2013; 13039/2014; 13040/2014; 19552/2015; 23826/2014) [2016] ZAGPPHC 941; [2017] 1 All SA 585 (GP); 2017 (2) SA 295 (GP) (7 November 2016)

CHILDREN WITH DISABILITY OR CHRONIC ILLNESS

The South African Children’s Act ensures the safety of ALL children, including those with disability or chronic illness.

 Many children (and their families) experience a sense of powerlessness in the beginning of dealing with a disability or chronic illness, and often feel very stressed at facing a future filled with unknowns. Every child has the right to health and safety, and in South Africa, the Children’s Act provides for the health and safety of ALL children, including children with disability or chronic illness. It is important that children who are disabled or live with a chronic illness know their rights; they should be informed and protected.

 The law on children with disability

South African law states that due consideration must be given to children with disability:

  • The child must be provided with care and support as and when appropriate.
  • It must be made possible for the child to participate in social and educational activities, recognising their special needs and promoting self-reliance.

The law on children with chronic illness

According to South African law, the following must be evident when it comes to children with chronic illness:

  • The child must be provided with the necessary parental care and support services.
  • The child must be provided with conditions that ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate participation in the community.

A child with disability or chronic illness has the right not to be subjected to medical, cultural or religious practices that are detrimental to their health or dignity. Parents or guardians should do their best to protect the rights of their children, and also to listen to them and assist them where needed. However, it is important not to safeguard them in such a way as to alienate them from the rest of the world.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice. Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

References:

Children’s Act 38 of 2005. http://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/acts/2005-038%20childrensact.pdf

DIVORCED STAY AT HOME PARENT

Are you recently divorced and a stay at home parent? Know your rights and get what you deserve!

In South African law, section 7(2) of the Divorce Act deals with the payment of maintenance in situations where no settlement agreement has been entered into between the parties, and it’s up to the courts to deal with the matter of maintenance.

What happens if I get divorced?

Rehabilitative maintenance refers to divorce situations where a maintenance order is given for a certain time after the divorce is finalised. The court makes a decision based on certain factors, including; the divorcing couple’s current and potential future financial means, their ages, the length of the marriage, their standard of living before the divorce, and any behaviour that may have contributed to the divorce.

In South Africa, no maintenance will be awarded to someone who can support themselves, or has the ability to support themselves. If the stay at home parent has not abandoned or downscaled his/her career to stay at home to take care of the children, no maintenance will be awarded.

How can the law protect me?

An award for rehabilitative maintenance is usually given when the court finds that a marriage has significantly affected the ability of one person to support themselves. When maintenance is awarded, the court takes into consideration the amount of time it will take for the stay at home parent to upskill him/herself to re-enter the job market. In many cases, it isn’t possible for the stay at home parent to re-enter the job market, and they may find themselves without an income once the period of rehabilitative maintenance is over.

Courts need to look at how employable the stay at home parent is when he/she seeks a maintenance award. If employability isn’t possible, the stay at home parent should be granted maintenance until death or remarriage.

The ages of the couple’s children will also be taken into consideration, as well as which parent will be the primary resident parent. Rehabilitative maintenance could be awarded to the stay at home parent to take care of the children until they can support themselves.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice. Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

References:

http://www.w24.co.za/Work/Legal/Stay-at-home-spouses-divorce-and-maintenance-20150219

http://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/acts/1979-070.pdf

AWAITING YOUR DEPOSIT

What to know when your landlord has your deposit and has failed to pay it out

You have viewed the new property and secured it by paying the correct deposit amount to the landlord. With the transition into your new space being as breezy as it was, no red flags were raised as to how your landlord could trick you going forward. How do you approach a situation where your landlord won’t pay you back your deposit after you move out?

Firstly, a pre- and post-occupation inspection of the rental space must be completed before and after the tenant moves in. This inspection is the landlord’s responsibility and if he or she does not conduct the said inspection, they are then unable to claim against the tenant upon the lease expiration. The Rental Housing Act states that the tenant has the right not to have their home or property searched by the landlord, and thus, the landlord must give reasonable notice for inspection 3 days before the lease ends.

Regarding deposits, section 5 of the RHA states that, should there be damages incurred by the tenant under the said lease needing repair after the post-occupation inspection, the landlord must refund the remaining deposit amount, if any, to the tenant within 14 days. In the case where no claims for damages have been made by the landlord, and the tenant is debt free in terms of charges and rent, the deposit must be refunded within seven days following the lease expiration. A tenant who refuses to take part in the inspection process, and damages have been found, is liable to receive their remaining deposit 21 days from the expiration of the lease.

If a landlord refuses or has failed to refund the tenant their deposit, the tenant may approach the Rental Housing Tribunal.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice. Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

References:

Rental Housing Act No. 50 of 1999. (2017). [PDF] Cape Town: Republic of South Africa, pp.6-7. Available at: https://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/a50-99.pdf [Accessed 20 Nov. 2017].

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