Monthly Archives: March 2018

VAT increase and the effect on property transfers and the registration of transfers before and after 1 April 2018.

The increase was announced in the Minister of Finance’s Budget Speech on 21 February 2018. The standard rate of VAT will change from 14% to 15% on 1 April 2018 (the effective date).

How will this VAT increase affect property transactions, property registrations and estate agent commissions?

Question 1:

How will the rate increase work generally for fixed property transactions?

The rate of VAT for fixed property transactions will be the rate that applies on the date of registration of transfer of the property in a Deeds Registry, or the date that any payment of the purchase price is made to the seller – whichever event occurs first. (See, however, the exception in Question 2 below where registration (delivery) of the fixed property occurs on or before 23 April 2018.)

If a “deposit” is paid and held in trust by the transferring attorney, this payment will not trigger the time of supply as it is not regarded as payment of the purchase price at that point in time. Normally the sale price of a property is paid to the seller in full by the purchaser’s bank (for example, if a bond is granted) or by the purchaser’s transferring attorney.

However, if the seller allows the purchaser to pay the purchase price off over a period of time, the output tax and input tax of the parties is calculated by multiplying the tax fraction at the original time of supply by the amount of each subsequent payment, as and when those payments are made. In other words, if the time of supply was triggered before 1 April 2018, your agreed payments to the seller over time will not increase because of the increase in the VAT rate on 1 April 2018.

Example:

A vendor sells a commercial building and issues a tax invoice to the purchaser on 10 January 2018. If the property will only be registered in the Deeds Registry on or after 1 April 2018 and payment will be made by the purchaser’s bank or transferring attorneys on the same date, then the time of supply will only be triggered at that later date. In this case, VAT must be charged at 15% as the rate increased on 1 April 2018 which would be before the time of supply. It does not matter that an invoice or a tax invoice was issued before the time of supply and before the VAT rate increased. The tax invoice in this case would also have to be corrected as it would have indicated VAT charged at the incorrect rate of 14%.

See also the next questions below for the rate specific rule that provides an exception for the purchase of “residential property” or land on which a dwelling is included as part of the deal.

Question 2:

Is there a rate specific rule which is applicable to me if I signed the contract to buy residential property (for example, a dwelling) before the rate of VAT increased, but payment of the purchase price and registration will only take place on or after 1 April 2018?

Yes. You will pay VAT based on the rate that applied before the increase on 1 April 2018 (that is 14% VAT and not 15% VAT). This rate specific rule overrides the rules as discussed in Question 1, which applies for non- residential fixed property.

This rate specific rule applies only if:

  • you entered into a written agreement to buy the dwelling (that is “residential property”) before 1 April 2018;
  • both the payment of the purchase price and the registration of the property in your name will only occur on or after 1 April 2018; and
  • the VAT-inclusive purchase price was determined and stated as such in the agreement.

For purposes of this rule, “residential property” includes:

  • an existing dwelling, together with the land on which it is erected, or any other real rights associated with that property;
  • so-called plot-and-plan deals where the land is bought together with a building package for a dwelling to be erected on the land; or
  • the construction of a new dwelling by any vendor carrying on a construction business;
  • a share in a share block company which confers a right to or an interest in the use of a dwelling.

Question 3:

How will the VAT increase affect the seller of the property and estate agent commission?

Two possible scenarios can apply:

Scenario 1:

Should the contract of sale read that a percentage commission plus VAT is payable, that will be calculated at 14% if transfer takes place before 1 April 2018 and at 15% when registration takes place on or after 1 April 2018.

The net result is that the seller (who sold prior to 31 March 2018) will receive a lower net amount on the selling price because of the increased VAT, should transfer take place after 31 March 2018.

Scenario 2:

Should the contract of sale refer to a fixed commission amount inclusive of VAT, the opposite will apply. The seller will receive the same amount, but the agent will receive less because of the increased VAT.

For more information on the VAT Increase, download the SARS VAT Increase general guide and FAQs here

Please contact us should you have any specific questions.

Registering your inventions

South Africa’s Patent Act urges that one registers their patent and take ownership of their invention

A patent is a set of exclusive rights, granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention. A patent provides protection for the owner, which gives him/her the right to exclude others from making, using, exercising, disposing of the invention, offering to dispose, or importing the invention.

What can be patented?

A patent may, subject to the provisions of this section, be granted for any new invention which involves an inventive step, and which is capable of being used or applied in trade and industry or agriculture. These include inventions such as appliances, mechanical devices etc.

The Patent Act defines the scope of patentable inventions in negative, by specifying what cannot be patented, which includes:

  • computer programmes;
  • artistic works;
  • mathematical methods and other purely mental processes;
  • games;
  • plans, schemes, display of information;
  • business methods;
  • biological inventions; and
  • methods for treatment of humans and animals.

Registering a patent

According to South Africa’s Patent Act, a register must be kept at the patent office, in which the classification of patents must be done according to subject-matter. In this register, the names and addresses of the following persons must be stated:

  • the applicants for the patents;
  • the grantees of the patents;
  • the inventors of the relevant inventions; and
  • other particulars (if so prescribed).

Copies of all deeds, agreements, licences and other documents that may affect a patent or the application thereof, must also be recorded in the register.

Reference

  • Companies and Intellectual Properties Commission | CIPC

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice. Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE).

Has your property been damaged?

What happens when your property has been purposefully damaged, especially during an altercation?

Uber car torching

During the road closures by meter taxis in Johannesburg on October 27 2017, two Uber drivers’ cars were set alight. A total of thirty meter taxi drivers were arrested for traffic disruption on the R21 and R24 highways of Johannesburg, and further investigations were underway as to determine how the cars were torched during the protest. With the meter taxi drivers being responsible for the flames, and assaulting an Uber passenger before leaving with her belongings. There have been ongoing violent feuds between Uber, meter taxis and taxi drivers, and in one instance, an Uber passenger was stabbed in the face, allegedly by a taxi driver. Two cars, believed to be Uber vehicles, were petrol-bombed earlier in September.

Malicious damage to property

Damaging property belonging to someone else is common – someone’s car door could fling to bump yours, the neighbour’s son may swing a cricket ball towards your kitchen window. These are mistakes which don’t normally require the assistance of authorities. Malicious damage to property is the intentional and unlawful vandalization of property or belongings of another person. As a criminal offence in South Africa, damage to property extends over to the physical harm of pets, and the vandalization of cars, furniture and other tangible items which can cause financial setbacks.

Suing for malicious damage for property follows reporting the incident as soon as possible. It is advised to keep records, such as photographs, names of witnesses, time of incident, and most importantly, financial records of repairing or replacing said property or belongings. It is important to note that in cases where property is damaged in an act of self-defence, or protecting property, the claim for malicious damage to property will not be a successful one.

References:

  • Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977. (1977). [ebook] p.194. Available at: http://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/acts/1977-051.pdf [Accessed 31 Oct. 2017].

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice. Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

Do you want to deregister your company?

When the time has come to close shop, a company or close corporation may be deregistered upon request from the company or close corporation or any other third party, but only provided that the company or close corporation:

  1. has ceased to carry on business; and
  2. has no assets or, because of the inadequacy of its assets, there is no reasonable probability of the company being liquidated.

What is needed from the company?

In order for the Companies and Intellectual Property Commission (CIPC) to process the deregistration request, the following information is required on an original letter head of either the company, close corporation or any other third person applying for deregistration:

    1. A statement confirming that

a. the company or close corporation is not carrying on business or is dormant; and

b. has no assets, or because of the inadequacy of its assets, that there is no reasonable probability of the company being liquidated (if third party, the statement must be supplemented with sufficient documentary proof confirming the statement).

    1. A tax clearance certificate or any other written confirmation from SARS that no tax liability is outstanding (an affidavit if not registered for tax).
    1. If the company or close corporation submits the request, the letter must be signed by each active director, or otherwise by the person who is requesting the deregistration.
    2. The tax number (if available).
    3. A certified ID copy of any of the persons signing the letter wherein deregistration is required.

When a business/company has been deregistered with the CIPC, it implies the business/company is no longer registered and has no legal standing since it’s not doing any business nor has any assets or liabilities.

References:

  • Companies and Intellectual Property Commission | CIPC
  • The South African Revenue Service | SARS

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice. Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

Title deeds when buying or selling property

If you’re planning to buy a new property, you’ll need to get the title deed transferred into your name to prove that you’re the owner of the property. You’ll need the assistance of a lawyer specialising in property transfers (also known as a conveyancer) to help you transfer the title deed into your name.

You’ll only become the owner of the property when the Registrar of Deeds signs the transfer. After it’s been signed, a copy of the title deed is kept at the Deeds Office closest to you.

How long does it take? 

A search may take 30 to 60 minutes. In some of the larger offices, the copy of a deed is posted or it must be collected after a certain period of time.

To obtain a copy of a deed or document from a deeds registry, you must:

  • Go to any deeds office (deeds registries may not give out information acting on a letter or a telephone call).
  • Go to the information desk, where an official will help you complete a prescribed form and explain the procedure.
  • Request a data typist to do a search on the property, pay the required fee at the cashier’s office and take the receipt back to the official at the information desk.
  • The receipt number will be allocated to your copy of title.

Fortunately, a conveyancer will help you with the process so that you don’t have to worry about all the paperwork yourself. You should contact your legal advisor to find out more.

Reference:

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied on as legal or other professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your legal adviser for specific and detailed advice. Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)